Alpha process nucleosynthesis

This creates a helium-4 nucleus through a sequence of chain reactions that begin with the fusion of two protons to form a deuterium nucleus one proton plus one neutron along with an ejected positron and neutrino.

This temperature is achieved in the cores of main sequence stars with at least 1. The nested dual-core electron shell can be perceived as the manifested hypersphere of a 3-sphere structure, which is formed with a nested torus-shaped spheroidal structure manifested from the atomic nucleus, and it integrates with two nested torus-shaped spheroidal structures manifested from the L1 and L2 Lagrangian point of the atomic nucleus.

The 10 Lagrangian points on the 3p subshell, are formed with six harmonically manifested Lagrangian points from the 3p subshell, which are labeled as 3d-8 L13d-3 L23d-6 L43d L53d-1 L43d-5 L5and two pairs of two L4 and L5 Lagrangian points of 3dL1 and 3d3-L2 manifested on the 3d subshell, which are labeled as 3d-7 L43d-9 L53d-2 L4and 3d-4 L5.

Note the slope of the potential curve in the gif animation.

Triple-alpha process

Discovery[ edit ] The triple alpha process is highly dependent on carbon and beryllium-8 having resonances with slightly more energy than helium-4and beforeno such energy levels were known for carbon.

And they are also resonated as their L1 Lagrangian points Alpha process nucleosynthesis all other inner s-subshells. However, due to the high pressure at the center of the star this does not occur and energy production continues unmoderated.

The strong energy dependence is explained by quantummechanical tunnel effect. As illustrated in the diagram of the UVS atomic model, it is perceivable that the two primary L1 and L2 Lagrangian points spawned in the 1s subshell, are resonated as harmonics at the L1 and L2 angular phases in all the outer subshells.

The only Alpha process nucleosynthesis Hoyle could find that would produce an abundance of both carbon and oxygen Alpha process nucleosynthesis through a triple alpha process with a carbon resonance near 7.

Stellar nucleosynthesis

As the temperature rises, increased pressure in the core would normally result in an expansion, reduction of density, and thus reduction in reaction rate. The astrophysicist Fred Hoyle used the fact that carbon is abundant in the universe as evidence for the existence of a carbon resonance.

In this way, the alpha process preferentially produces elements with even numbers of protons by the capture of helium nuclei. In the comparative analysisJupiter can be perceived as a nested positron coalesced spheroidal body of stellar materials formed in the K shell, which is vortically impelled by the cyclonic spinor field generated at the harmonically resonated L1 Lagrangian point of the BOTSS.

However, the beryllium-8 ground state has almost exactly the energy of two alpha particles. The power released by the reaction is approximately proportional to the temperature to the 40th power, and the density squared.

The inner major planets Mars, Earth, Venus, and Mercury, can thus be perceived as the nested positrons coalesced spheroidal bodies of stellar materials formed with the cyclonically rotating spinor fields of the L1 Lagrangian points on the 1s, 2s, 3s, and 4s subshells in the inner shell walls of their K, L, M,and N shells respectively.

Ninety percent of all stars, with the exception of white dwarfsare fusing hydrogen by these two processes. This allows 8Be and 4He to use the kinetic energy of their collision to fuse into the excited 12C, which can then transition to its stable ground state. To the top of this page: More massive stars ignite helium in their cores without a flash and execute a blue loop before reaching the asymptotic giant branch.

The ratio of the kinetic energies is: Triple-alpha process and Alpha process Main sequence stars accumulate helium in their cores as a result of hydrogen fusion, but the core does not become hot enough to initiate helium fusion. Other scientists reject the hypothesis of the multiverse on account of the lack of independent evidence.

It is apparent with the UVS atomic model that as a result of the 2nd sphere and the 3rd sphere are rendering four additional Lagrangian points outwardly to the next outermost subshell of an electron shell, which are rendered by the two pairs of L4 and L5 Lagrangian points manifested with the two primary L1 and L2 Lagrangian points, or with its harmonics resonated in the outer electron shells.

The anthropic principle has been cited to explain the fact that nuclear resonances are sensitively arranged to create large amounts of carbon and oxygen in the universe. In higher-mass stars, the dominant energy production process is the CNO cyclewhich is a catalytic cycle that uses nuclei of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as intermediaries and in the end produces a helium nucleus as with the proton-proton chain.

See also alas in Hungarian: Fowler gave Whaling permission to use an old Van de Graaff generator that was not being used.


The nested L1 and L2 Lagrangian points of the BOTSS, are differential dual-core accreting spinor fields of the Solar System atom that have had harmonically spawned in the torus-shaped nested Solar System electron shell.

As the squares of momenta are equal for the decay products due to momentum conservation, kinetic energies and masses are also inversely proportional for the decay products: This " resonance " greatly increases the probability that an incoming alpha particle will combine with beryllium-8 to form carbon.

As a result, the core region becomes a convection zonewhich stirs the hydrogen fusion region and keeps it well mixed with the surrounding proton-rich region. They fuse helium until the core is largely carbon and oxygen. Alpha decay with 3 animated examples Click Alpha process nucleosynthesis full-screen animation: The most massive stars become supergiants when they leave the main sequence and quickly start helium fusion as they become red supergiants.

The latter is always positive for spontaneous processes like radioactive decay: Fine-tuned universe Carbon Alpha process nucleosynthesis a necessary component of all life that we know. The primary L1 and L2 Lagrangian points from the 1s subshell, are also harmonically manifested on the 2s subshell, which are labeled as Ls and Ls in the illustrated UVS atomic model on right.

The harmonics of the primary L1 and L2 Lagrangian points manifested on the 2p subshell, are labeled as Lp and Lp, and the two sets of L4 and L5 Lagrangian points manifested on the 2p subshell from these harmonics, are labeled as L4-Lp, L5-Lp, L4-Lp and L5-Lp; these render the maximum of eight electrons for the L shell that encapsulates the 2s and 2p subshells.

These stars will also lose material from their outer layers as they expand and contract. There had been reports of an excited state at about 7.Discussion big bang nucleosynthesis. By the first millisecond, the universe had cooled to a few trillion kelvins (10 12 K) and quarks finally had the opportunity to bind together into free protons and neutrons.

Free neutrons are unstable with a half-life of about ten minutes ( s) and formed in much smaller numbers. The Symposium program schedule-at-a-glance is now available (revised 31 May).

Full session details can be viewed from the link below. The atomic models for the structure of atom, such as the Bohr model or the Rutherford model, were all mathematically perceived in subjective reality by the inferences with their had been the situation because there was no way to pry open or dissect any atomic particle; the structure of an atom was not perceivable in its physical.

Flash animation of the alpha decay of Be-8, Te, and Sg with sound effect. Energy and momentum coservation is taken into consideration. Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.

Stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred continuously since the original creation of hydrogen, helium and lithium during the Big is a highly predictive theory that today yields.

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

Alpha process nucleosynthesis
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